The monument to Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky is one of the most famous monuments in Moscow. Is is located in Red Square, next to St. Basil's Cathedral. The author of the monument to Minin and Pozharsky was Ivan Petrovich Martos.
The monument to Minin and Pozharsky was the first monument in Moscow, raised in honor of national heroes, but not in honor of emperor. Funds for the monument were collected from the nationwide subscription. Martos worked on the monument from 1804 to 1817. Sculptor figured a moment when Kuzma Minin, pointing to Moscow, presents Prince Pozharsky ancient sword and calls for its stand at the head of the Russian army. Relying on the board, the wounded governor lifted from his bed, that symbolizes the awakening of national consciousness in a difficult hour for the Fatherland.
Minin figure dominates the composition. Forever remembered his inviting gesture. A hand, thrown up to the top, not only encourages Pozharsky, it seems to be directed to all the people, raises them to fight. Manly face looks like a Zeus face, but cut his hair in a bracket attached to it the character of the Russian peasant. Heaton, lined the edge of the pattern, is the reminiscent of national Russian shirt. Pozharsky, still reeling from the wounds, is sitting on the couch. His figure in classical garb somewhat indecisive, it is generally less successful, but the basic movement is expressed clearly, he responded to the call of Minin. In one hand Pozharsky holds shield with the Savior, and the other is put on a sword outstretched Minin. As in the engraving, the sword is the center of the composition and binds the two figures, symbolically establishing their unity. Bas-relief is divided into two parts. On the right - a group of men brought abundant gifts, on the left - a group of women. Compared with the first option, this group has become more expressive. Kneeling women give their jewelry not happily, but the smooth movement of the hands as if laying them on the altar of the Fatherland. Women poses are significant and solemn. Antique clothes on them, but introduces Martos and Russian motif, adorning the head with kokoshniks.
There’s an interesting group of female figures, which shows a father with two sons. Galberg, the deloved Martos disciple, who made his father's head, gave it the portrait features of his teacher. The reason for this, apparently, was that the son of Martos in 1812 fought in the Kutuzov army. Center of the bas-relief donations are folded on the ground. Bas-relief above the inscription: "To Citizen Minin and Prince Pozharsky from grateful Russia, the summer of 1818."
On the other side of the pedestal bas-relief is dedicated to Pozharsky victory over the enemies. Bas-relief is also divided into two parts - one depicts the Russian war, calm and courageous, led by Pozharsky, a horse which tramples the enemy on the other - a group of Poles flee in horror looking at the victors. However, this bas-relief is less successful than the front, it lacks the intensity and expressiveness, which are so characteristic for Martos creativity. It is important to note that the bas-relief with offerings of Nizhny Novgorod is placed on the front side and a bas-relief on Pozharsky - on the back. Martos said this is not only the value of Minin and role in the liberation of Moscow.
The monument to Minin and Pozharsky was one of those works which, when viewed from different points of view gradually reveal their ideological meaning. Even from a distance clearly looming silhouette of the monument, and the first in what we pay attention - it's highly raised hand Minin, his call-up gesture. When we come closer, we are faced with full-length figure of manly Minin, who calls Pozharsky rise from the bed and head guard. Going forward and look agitated gesture, originating sword Pozharsky as a response to the call. If you bypass the monument on the other hand, we can see that Pozharsky relying on hand panel, as it rises to meet Minin. On the back side are clearly visible with crossed hands on the sword of Minin and Pozharsky symbolizing the strong unity of the two heroes. Thus, excellent composition solution of the whole group makes its expressive in every way.